A Study of the Application of Virtual Reality Technology as an Anthropometric Measurement Tool

Uğur Efe Uçar, Gözde Gökdemir, Ervin Garip
pp.  194 – 211, download


Fundamental factors such as constantly changing space usage habits, evolving technology, and various physical and demographic characteristics of space users today call the accuracy of anthropometric assumptions into question. This paper aims to reveal whether VR could be used as an anthropometric measurement tool based on VR’s capacity to measure size perception. For this, the parameters that reveal the difference in size perception between VR and the real world were determined, and it was aimed to reveal their effect on the size perception process. Participants received instructions to estimate the sizes of various space components in experimental environments in both real and virtual reality. However, this approach was used to analyze the convergence and divergence between the assumptions rather than the accuracy of user-generated dimensional assumptions. The study’s findings are presented as comparative graphical narratives of user estimates in physical and virtual environments.

Keywords: Anthropometry, Virtual reality, Size, Size perception, Interior architecture.


1. Tilley, A.R., Henry Dreyfuss Associates.: The Measure of Man and Woman: Human Factors in Design, Wiley, (2001)
2. Pheasant, S.: Bodyspace: Anthropometry, Ergonomics and the Design of Work, Taylor&Francis, (2003)
3. Littlefield, D.: Metric Handbook: Planning and Design Data, Architectural Press, (2011)
4. Neufert, E., Neufert, P.: Neufert Architects’ Data, Wiley-Blackwell, (2012)
5. Panero, J., Zelnik, M.: Human Dimension and Interior Space A Source Book of Design Reference Standards, Watson-Guptill, (2014)
6. Erkan, I.: A System Proposal for Rapid Detecting of Anthropometric Data and Affecting Design Strategies, Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, 18(6), pp. 1793–1822 (2020) https://doi.org/10.1108/JEDT-11-2019-0302
7. Hornsey, R.L., Hibbard, P.B., Scarfe, P.: Size and Shape Constancy in Consumer Virtual Reality, Behavour Research Methods, 52(1), pp. 1587–1598 (2020)
8. Rzepka, A.M., Hussey, K.J., Maltz, M.V., Babin, K., Wilcox, L.M., Culham, J.C.: Familiar Size Affects Perception Differently in Virtual Reality and the Real World, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 378(1869), pp. 1–14 (2022)
9. Vienne, C., Masfrand, S., Bourdin, C., Vercher, J.L.: Depth Perception in Virtual Reality Systems: Effect of Screen Distance, Environment Richness and Display Factors. IEEE Access, 8, pp. 29099–29110 (2020) https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2972122
10. Kim, D., Kim, J., Shin, J., Yoon, B., Lee, J., Woo, W.: Effects of virtual room size and objects on relative translation gain thresholds in redirected walking. In: IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces (VR), pp. 379–388. (2022) https://doi.org/10.1109/VR51125.2022.00057
11. Gonçalvez, G., Meirinhos, G., Filipe, V., Melo, M., Bessa, M.: Virtual Reality e-Commerce: Contextualization and Gender Impact on User Memory and User Perception of Functionalities and Size of Products, IEEE Access, 10, pp. 92491–92504 (2020) https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3198957
12. Zhang, J., Dong, Z., Lindeman, R., Piumsomboon, T.: Spatial Scale Perception for Design Tasks in Virtual Reality. In: Symposium on Spatial User Interaction (SUI ’20), pp. 1–3. (2020) https://doi.org/10.1145/3385959.3422697
13. Creem-Regehr S.H, Stefanucci J.K., Bodenheimer B.: Perceiving Distance in Virtual Reality: Theoretical Insights From Contemporary Technologies, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 378(1869), (2022) https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2021.0456
14. Ching, F.D.K.: Interior Design Illustrated, Wiley, (2012)
15. Brooker, G., Stone, S.: What is Interior Design, Rockport Publishers, (2010)
16. Ching, F.D.K.: Architecture: Form, Space, and Order, Wiley, (2018)
17. Gürer, E.: The phenomenology of computational thinking in design, PhD Thesis, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, (2014) https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/tezDetay.jsp?id=WkDfny95vCxwGHoj6s6Y_A&no=L2Hpb-AtQw8dtuZyi9RDRQ
18. Caan, S.: Rethinking Design and Interiors, London, Laurence King Publishing Ltd., (2011)
19. Burke, E.: A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, London, Printed for R. and J. Dodsley, (1764)
20. Lang, J.: Creating Architectural Theory: The Role of The Behavioral in Environmental Design, New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Com., (1987)
21. Fuchs, P., Moreau G. & Guitton, P. (Ed.): Virtual Reality: Concepts and Technologies, Londra, CRC Press, (2011)
22. Heim, M.: Virtual Realism, New York, Oxford University Press, (1998)
23. Renner, R.S., Velichkovsky, B.M., Helmert, J.R.: The Perception of Egocentric Distances in Virtual Environments. ACM Computing Surveys, 46(2), pp. 1–40 (2013) https://doi.org/10.1145/2543581.2543590
24. Weber, S., Mast, F.W., Weibel, D.: Body Size Illusions Influence Perceived Size of Objects: A Validation of Previous Research in Virtual Reality, Virtual Reality, 24, pp. 385–397 (2020).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-019-00402-z
25. Keenaghan, S., Polaskova, M., Thurlbeck, S., Kentridge, R. W., Cowie, D.: Alice in Wonderland: The Effects of Body Size and Movement on Children’s Size Perception and Body Representation in Virtual Reality, PsyArXiv, pp. 1–35 (2020) https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/uw768
26. Paes, D., Irizarry, J., Billinghurst, M., Pujoni, D.: Investigating the Relationship Between Three-Dimensional Perception and Presence in Virtual Reality-Reconstructed Architecture, Applied Ergonomics, 109, pp. 1–13 (2023) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2022.103953
27. Linkenauger, S.A., Leyrer, M., Bülthoff, H.H., Mohler, B.J.: Welcome to Wonderland: The Influence of the Size and Shape of a Virtual Hand on the Perceived Size and Shape, Plos One, 8(7), pp. 1– 16 (2013) https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068594
28. Mine, D., Ogawa, N., Narumi, T., and Yokosawa, K.: The Relationship Between the Body and the Environment in the Virtual World: The Interpupillary Distance Affects the Body Size Perception, Plos One, 15(4), pp. 1–19 (2020) https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0232290
29. Thomas, B. H.: Examining User Perception of the Size of Multiple Objects in Virtual Reality, Applied Sciences, 10(11), pp. 1–24 (2020) https://doi.org/10.3390/app10114049
30. Itaguchi, Y.: Size Perception Bias and Reach-to-Grasp Kinematics: An Exploratory Study on the Virtual Hand With a Consumer Immersive Virtual-Reality Device, Frontiers in Virtual Reality, 2, pp. 1–10 (2021) https://doi.org/10.3389/frvir.2021.712378

back to Table of Contents