Gerhard Fischer
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Submitted on 15 Sep 2023 - Accepted on 23 Jan 2024

Interaction Design and Architecture(s) IxD&A Journal
Issue N. 59, Winter 2023


Despite lacking a shared understanding and a generally accepted definition, Artificial intelligence (AI) is promoted and credited with miraculous abilities to solve all problems. To gain a more nuanced and deeper understanding of the design trade-offs associated with AI, this paper proposes a research framework that contrasts two competing frameworks: (1) AI versus Humans (characterized by strong AI and Artificial General Intelligence) focused on replacing human beings and (2) AI and Humans (characterized by intelligence augmentation and human-centered AI) focused on empowering human beings as individuals and communities. The arguments in the paper are supported by research activities that explored conceptual frameworks and inspiring prototypes. These developments have resulted in gaining a deeper understanding of how AI-type systems can contribute to quality of life aspects with a specific focus on rethinking and reinventing learning, education, working, and collaboration in the digital age.

Keywords: AI, AI versus Humans, AI and Humans, Intelligence Augmentation, Quality of Life, Design Trade-offs, ChatGPT

Cite this article as:
Fischer G.: A Research Framework Focused on AI and Humans instead of AI versus Humans, Interaction Design & Architecture(s) – IxD&A Journal, N.59, 2023, pp. 17–36, DOI:


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