Mihai Dascalu, Melania Nitu
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Submitted on 15 Oct 2023 - Accepted on 01 Feb 2024

Interaction Design and Architecture(s) IxD&A Journal
Issue N. 60, Spring 2024


Advances in Natural Language Processing bring innovative instruments to the educational field to improve the quality of the didactic process by addressing challenges like language barriers and creating personalized learning experiences. Most research in the domain is dedicated to high-resource languages, such as English, while languages with limited coverage, like Romanian, are still underrepresented in the field. Operating on low-resource languages is essential to ensure equitable access to educational opportunities and to preserve linguistic diversity. Through continuous investments in developing Romanian educational instruments, we are rapidly going beyond a low-resource language. This paper presents recent educational instruments and frameworks dedicated to Romanian, leveraging state-of-the-art NLP techniques, such as building advanced Romanian language models and benchmarks encompassing tools for language learning, text comprehension, question answering, automatic essay scoring, and information retrieval. The methods and insights gained are transferable to other low-resource languages, emphasizing methodological adaptability, collaborative frameworks, and technology transfer to address similar challenges in diverse linguistic contexts. Two use cases are presented, focusing on assessing student performance in Moodle courses and extracting main ideas from students’ feedback. These practical applications in Romanian academic settings serve as examples for enhancing educational practices in other less-resourced languages.

Keywords: Natural Language Processing, Educational Frameworks, Romanian Language Models, Transformer Architecture

Cite this article as:
Dascalu M., Nitu M.: Natural Language Processing Tools for Romanian – Going Beyond a Low-Resource Language., Interaction Design & Architecture(s) – IxD&A Journal, N.60, 2023, pp. 7–26, DOI:


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