Building an augmented reality system for consumption and production of hybrid gaming and storytelling

Richard E. Ferdig, Enrico Gandolfi, Chris Lenart, Robert Clements
pp.  53 – 68, download


This article provides an overview of how augmented reality (AR) can support gaming and ludic experiences. More importantly, it describes the development and open access availability of an augmented and virtual reality platform called GLARE that can be used to create hybrid storytelling and gaming experiences. In doing so, it provides insights of how we can move from a consumption-based (educators and students exposed to AR content) to a production-driven (educators and students creating AR content) approach to improve the pedagogical and psychological outcomes of such a technology. Concrete examples are provided to contextualize such a potential.

Keywords: Augmented Reality, Gamification, GLARE, Media Consumption, Media Production, Hybrid Storytelling


1. Ferdig R.E., Baumgartner E., Gandolfi E. (Eds.): Teaching the Game: A collection of syllabi for game design, development, and implementation (Vols. 1-2), ETC Press (2021)
2. Masukawa K.: The origins of board games and ancient game boards. In: Simulation and Gaming in the Network Society, pp. 3–11. Springer (2016)
3. Nicolopoulou A.: Play, cognitive development, and the social world: Piaget, Vygotsky, and beyond, Human development, 36(1), pp. 1–23 (1993)
4. Burriss K. G., Tsao L. L.: Review of research: How much do we know about the importance of play in child development?, Childhood Education, 78(4), pp. 230—233. (2002)
5. Gandolfi E., Ferdig R., Soyturk I.: Exploring the learning potential of online gaming communities: An application of the Game Communities of Inquiry Scale (GCoIS), New Media and Society, (2021)
6. Gandolfi E., Ferdig R.E., Immel Z. Educational opportunities for augmented reality. In: Second Handbook of Information Technology in Primary and Secondary Education, pp. 967-979. Springer (2018)
7. Hamari J., Malik A., Koski J., Johri A.: Uses and gratifications of Pokémon Go: why do people play mobile location-based augmented reality games?, International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 35(9), pp. 804—819. (2019)
8. Vayanou M., Ioannidis Y., Loumos G., Kargas A.: How to play storytelling games with masterpieces: from art galleries to hybrid board games, Journal of Computers in Education, 6(1), 79—116. (2019)
9. Chou C.Y: Becoming a real-fan or A non-fan for the augmented reality mobile games. In: AMCIS 2020 Proceedings., pp. 1—14. AMCIS (2020)
10. Dorward L. J., Mittermeier J. C., Sandbrook C., Spooner, F.: Pokémon Go: Benefits, costs, and lessons for the conservation movement, Conservation Letters, 10(1), pp. 160—165. (2017)
11. Westin T., Neves J., Mozelius P., Sousa C., Mantovan, L.: Inclusive AR-games for education of deaf children: Challenges and opportunities. In: European Conference on Games Based Learning, pp. 597–604. ECGBL. (2022).
12. Rebollo C., Remolar I., Rossano V., Lanzilotti R.: Multimedia augmented reality game for learning math, Multimedia Tools and Applications, 81(11), pp. 14851—14868. (2022)
13. Hong O. A., Abd Halim N. D., Zulkifli N. N., Jumaat N. F., Zaid N. M., Mokhtar M.: Designing Game-Based Learning Kit with Integration of Augmented Reality for Learning Geography, iJIM, 16(02), pp. 1—5. (2022)
14. Wang Y.: Effects of augmented reality game-based learning on students’ engagement, International Journal of Science Education, Part B, pp. 1–17 (2022)
15. Deliyannis I., Poulimenou S. M., Kaimara P., Laboura S.: Digital tours: Designing a gamified augmented reality application to encourage gastronomy tourism and local food exploration. In: Cultural Sustainable Tourism, pp. 101-109. Springer. (2022)
16. Molnár G., Szűts Z., Biró K.: Use of augmented reality in learning, Acta Polytechnica Hungarica, 15(5), 209—222. (2018)
17. Devagiri J. S., Paheding S., Niyaz Q., Yang X., Smith, S.: Augmented reality and artificial intelligence in industry: Trends, tools, and future challenges, Expert Systems with Applications, 118002. (2022)
18. Makarov A.,
19. Sergey, L., How much will it cost to create a VR app in 2023: 6 steps to your immersive app. Cleveroad Inc.–discover-in-market-research/
20. Vidal-Balea A., Blanco-Novoa Ó., Fraga-Lamas P., Fernández-Caramés T.M.: Developing the next generation of augmented reality games for pediatric healthcare: an open-source collaborative framework based on arcore for implementing teaching, training and monitoring applications; Sensors, 21(5), 1865. (2021)
21. Roberto P., Emanuele F., Primo Z., Adriano M., Jelena L., Marina P.: Design, large-scale usage testing, and important metrics for augmented reality gaming applications, ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications (TOMM), 15(2), pp. 1—18. (2019)
22. Zhu L., Cao Q., Cai Y.: Development of augmented reality serious games with a vibrotactile feedback jacket, Virtual Reality & Intelligent Hardware, 2(5), pp. 454–470 (2020)
23. Gitlin, T. The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage, Bantam Books (1993)
24. Gandolfi E., Ferdig R.E., Kratcoski A., Blank J. … Clements R.: GLARE: An open source augmented reality platform for location-based content delivery, International Journal of Virtual and Augmented Reality, 5(1), pp. 1—19. (2021)
25. Raber J., Ferdig R.E., Gandolfi E., Clements R.: An analysis of motivation and situational interest in a location-based augmented reality application, Interaction Design and Architecture(s) Journal – IxD&A, 52, pp. 198—220. (2022)
26. Buchner J., Buntins K., Kerres M.: The impact of augmented reality on cognitive load and performance: A systematic review, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 38(1), pp. 285—303. (2022)
27. Boboc R.G., Duguleană M., Voinea G.D., Postelnicu C.C., Popovici D.M., Carrozzino M.: Mobile augmented reality for cultural heritage: Following the footsteps of Ovid among different locations in Europe, Sustainability, 11(4), 1167. (2019)
28. Yanez G.A., Thumlert K., De Castell S., Jenson J.: Pathways to sustainable futures: A “production pedagogy” model for STEM education, Futures, 108, pp. 27—36. (2019)
29. Mitchell C.C., Hessler N.: Cultivating middle school students’ literacy learning of story structure through video production, Michigan Reading Journal, 52(3), pp. 1-5 (2020)
30. Nand K., Baghaei N., Casey J., Barmada B., Mehdipour F., Liang H.N.: Engaging children with educational content via Gamification, Smart Learning Environments, 6(1), pp. 1–15 (2019)
31. Park S., Kim S.: Is sustainable online learning possible with gamification?—The effect of gamified online learning on student learning, Sustainability, 13(8), 4267. (2021)
32. Nguyen D., Meixner G.: Gamified augmented reality training for an assembly task: a study about user engagement. In: 2019 Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (FedCSIS), pp. 901-904. IEEE. (2019)
33. Lampropoulos G., Keramopoulos E., Diamantaras K., Evangelidis, G.: Augmented reality and gamification in education: A systematic literature review of research, applications, and empirical studies, Applied Sciences, 12(13), 6809. (2022).
34. Wang J., Stebbins A., Ferdig R.E.: Examining the effects of students’ self-efficacy and prior knowledge on learning and visual behavior in a physics game, Computers & Education, 178, 104405. (2022).
35. Ferdig R.E.: Assessing technologies for teaching and learning: Understanding the importance of technological-pedagogical content knowledge, British Journal of Educational Technology, 37(5), pp. 749—760. (2006)
36. Bravo R., Catalan S., Pina J.: Gamification in tourism and hospitality review platforms: How to RAMP up users’ motivation to create content, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 99, 103064. (2021)
37. Laor T.: Running away with the Pokémon GO gang: Three consumption needs, International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, pp. 1—12. (2021)
38. Hou, Huei-Tse, Chung-Sheng Wu, and Chang-Hsin Wu.: Evaluation of a mobile-based scaffolding board game developed by scaffolding-based game editor: analysis of learners’ performance, anxiety and behavior patterns, Journal of Computers in Education 10(2), pp. 273–291. (2023)
39. Walsh, R.: Emergent narrative in interactive media, Narrative 19.1 pp: 72—85. (2011)

back to Table of Contents